Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts
of 1844
(as hypertext) by Karl Marx

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The first page of Marx's First Notebook. Note the binding sewn at the top and the upside down lettering above this

ISBN 0 9533446 0 6

Gary Tedman

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The Hypertext Manuscripts of Karl Marx, Paris 1844
This version Copyright Gary Tedman 1998-2002
last modified: 03/01/2013

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Note: this version is new at March 2007, it replaces the older version at, which is no longer available. A similar but much updated post 2007 hypertext version of the EPM 1844 can now be obtained as an EBook (Mobipocket and Kindle) and is readable on PCs and Macs with the free reader software. For more information contact on email gitedman at replacing the 'at' with @ (and no spaces).

"The extant manuscripts of 1844 consist of two notebooks (the first and third manuscripts), one single double-folio sheet that was sewn into the centre of the third manuscript (the fourth manuscript), and two separate pages, carrying a continuous text (the second manuscript)."

Margaret Fay 1944-1979

For interpretation and explanation see:
Margaret Fay: Marx's EPM Structure
and Adam Smith
Gary Tedman: Marx's 1844 Hypertext as a Work of Art, also see:
Author: Gary Tedman Source: Rethinking Marxism, Volume 16, Number 4, October 2004, pp. 427-441(15) Publisher: Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group

Other related texts/sites:
Brecht: The Radio as an Apparatus for Communication
Morris: The Revival of Handicraft
Hegel: Absolute Knowledge
Smith: Three Components of the Commodity

See the map page for diagrams of Marx's pagination structure, which are hyperlinked to the text. Here there is also a helpful Flash animation of the page turning method...

Other links and search the web

Note, the text is small so that you can see the layout. This is important for this site. Most browsers can enlarge text (view menu)




...This site offers the user a web based facsimile of the original design of Karl Marx's 1844 Manuscripts, which is well known for having a unique physical layout.
It is the only place where these features can be grasped other than by looking at Marx's actual MS. Of course, the bare text is available elsewhere, but separated from this design. Here, we use hyperlinks to follow Marx's pagination, and tables for the columns on Marx's 'landscape' orientated pages. If you want to go straight to Marx's 'cover' page try: epmht_00.htm. You can use the 'transport' above to move between pages (see navigation link).
  Text based hyperlinks here are not necessarily denoted by colour and the user may need to make sure that links are underlined or 'hovered' in their browser. This website is continually being improved, however, any suggestions/criticism would be welcome as would donations towards upkeep (the resource is free, and exists independent of any academic or other institutions.
...Fay (see link) divides the first manuscript into a 'core notebook', mainly of three column format dealing with economics, and 'outer sheets'. In this respect the core of the first manuscript is similar to the fourth MS, as it is different to what surrounds it, i.e. the third MS text.
 It may be advisable to read the texts in the previous column before negotiating this hypertext version of the Manuscripts.
  At the end of her essay Fay provides a do-it-yourself recipe for a paper based model of Marx's first 1844 Manuscripts and this can be used in correspondence with this website. An idea of the physical design (layout and pagination) of the EPM seems indispensable to a genuine understanding of its themes, so you may want to take the following link that shows how it is possible to obtain a print from this website.
...notebook printed example >>

New! version 3.00, 2007

See also: Aesthetics & Alienation, Zero Books, by Gary Tedman 2012.