Wages of Labour

Rent of Land

Profit of Capital

[XIX. 1.]

[XX. 1.]

[XIX. 2.]
....(2)The following observations can be made in connection with the controversy over whether or not to divide up landed property.
....The division of landed property negates the large-scale monopoly of landed property, abolishes it, but only by generalising it. It does not abolish the basis of monopoly, which is private property. It attacks the existence, but not the essence, of monopoly. The consequence is that it falls foul of the laws of private property. For to divide up landed property corresponds to the movement of competition in the industrial sphere. Apart from the economic disadvantages of this division of the instruments of labour and separation of labour (not to be confused with the division of labour; this is not a case of dividing up work among a number of individuals, but of each individual doing the same work; it is a multiplication of the same work), this division of the land, like competition in industry, inevitably leads to further accumulation.
....So wherever landed property is divided up, monopoly will inevitably reappear in an even more repulsive form--unless, that is, the division of landed property itself is negated or abolished. This does not mean a return to feudal property, but the abolition [Aufhebung] of private property is land altogether. The first step in the abolition of monopoly is always to generalize and extend its existence. The abolition of monopoly, when it has reached its broadest and most comprehensive existence, is its complete destruction. Association, when applied to the land, retains the benefits of large landed property from an economic point of view and realizes for the first time the tendency inherent in the division of land, namely equality. At the same time, association restores man's intimate links to the land in a rational way, no longer mediated by serfdom, lordship, and an imbecile mystique of property. This is because the earth ceases to be an object of barter, and through free labour and free employment once again becomes authentic, personal property for man. One great advantage of the division of the land is that its masses, who are no longer prepared to tolerate servitude, are destroyed by property in a different way from those in industry.
....As for large landed property, its apologists have always sophistically identified the economic advantages inherent in large-scale agriculture with large-scale landed property, as if these advantages would not on the one hand attain their

[XX. 2.]

[XIX. 3.]

[XX. 3.]
















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