The appropriation of man's essential powers, which have become objects--indeed, alien objects--is thus in the first place only an appropriation occurring in consciousness, in pure thought, i.e., in abstraction: it is the appropriation of these objects as thoughts and as movements of thought. Consequently, despite its thoroughly negative and critical appearance and despite the genuine criticism contained in it, which often anticipates far later development, there is already latent in the Phanomenologie as a germ, a potentiality, a secret, the uncritical positivism and the equally uncritical idealism of Hegel's later work--that philosophic dissolution and restoration of the existing empirical world.

In the second place: the vindication of the objective world for man - for example, the realisation that sensual consciousness is not an abstractly sensual consciousness but a humanly sensual consciousness, that religion, wealth, etc., are but the estranged world of human objectification, of man's essential powers put to work and that they are therefore but the path to the true human world - this appropriation or the insight into this process appears in Hegel therefore in this form, that sense, religion, state power, etc., are spiritual entities; for only mind is the true essence of man, and the true form of mind is thinking mind, the logical, speculative mind. The human character of nature and of the nature created by history--man's product appears in the form that they are products of abstract mind and as such, therefore, phases of mind-thought-entities. The Phanomenologie is, therefore, a hidden, mystifying and still uncertain criticism; but inasmuch as it depicts man's estrangement, even though man appears only as mind, there lie concealed in it all the elements of criticism, already prepared and elaborated in a manner often rising far above the Hegelian standpoint. The "unhappy consciousness", the "honest consciousness",


the struggle of the "noble and base consciousness", etc., etc.--these separate sections contain, but still in an estranged form, the critical elements of whole spheres such as religion, the state, civil life, etc. Just as entities, objects, appear as thought-entities so the subject is always consciousness or self-consciousness; or rather the object appears only as abstract consciousness, man only as self-consciousness: the distinct forms of estrangement which make their appearance are, therefore, only various forms of consciousness and self-consciousness. Just as in itself abstract consciousness (the form in which the object is conceived) is merely a moment of distinction of self-consciousness, what appears as the result of the movement is the identity of self-consciousness with consciousness - absolute knowledge, the movement of abstract thought no longer directed outwards but proceeding now only within its own self: that is to say, the dialectic of pure thought is the result.

[Continued on p. XXII--Marx. ]

We have already seen how the political economist establishes the unity of labour and capital in a variety of ways:

(1) Capital is accumulated labour.
(2) The purpose of capital within production--partly, reproduction of capital with profit, partly, capital as raw material (material of labour), and partly, as an automatically working instrument (the machine is capital directly equated with labour)--is productive labour.
(3) The worker is a capital.
(4) Wages belong to costs of capital.
(5) In relation to the worker, labour is the reproduction of his life--capital. (6) In relation to the capitalist, labour is an aspect of his capital's activity.

(7) the political economist postulates the original unity of capital and labour as the unity of the capitalist and the worker; this is the original state of paradise. The way in which these two aspects,

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