appropriation of man's essential powers, which have become objects--indeed,
alien objects--is thus in the first place only an appropriation occurring
in consciousness, in pure thought, i.e., in abstraction:
it is the appropriation of these objects as thoughts and as
movements of thought. Consequently, despite its thoroughly negative
and critical appearance and despite the genuine criticism contained in
it, which often anticipates far later development, there is already latent
in the Phanomenologie as a germ, a potentiality, a secret, the
uncritical positivism and the equally uncritical idealism of Hegel's later
work--that philosophic dissolution and restoration of the existing empirical
In the second place: the vindication of the objective world for
man - for example, the realisation that sensual consciousness is
not an abstractly sensual consciousness but a humanly sensual
consciousness, that religion, wealth, etc., are but the estranged world
of human objectification, of man's essential powers put
to work and that they are therefore but the path to the true human
world - this appropriation or the insight into this process appears
in Hegel therefore in this form, that sense, religion, state power,
etc., are spiritual entities; for only mind is the true
essence of man, and the true form of mind is thinking mind, the logical,
speculative mind. The human character of nature and of the nature
created by history--man's product appears in the form that they are products
of abstract mind and as such, therefore, phases of mind-thought-entities.
The Phanomenologie is, therefore, a hidden, mystifying
and still uncertain criticism; but inasmuch as it depicts man's estrangement,
even though man appears only as mind, there lie concealed in it all
the elements of criticism, already prepared and elaborated
in a manner often rising far above the Hegelian standpoint. The "unhappy
consciousness", the "honest consciousness",
struggle of the "noble and base consciousness", etc., etc.--these
separate sections contain, but still in an estranged form, the critical
elements of whole spheres such as religion, the state, civil life,
etc. Just as entities, objects, appear as thought-entities so the
subject is always consciousness or self-consciousness;
or rather the object appears only as abstract consciousness,
man only as self-consciousness: the distinct forms of estrangement
which make their appearance are, therefore, only various forms of consciousness
and self-consciousness. Just as in itself abstract consciousness
(the form in which the object is conceived) is merely a moment of distinction
of self-consciousness, what appears as the result of the movement is the
identity of self-consciousness with consciousness - absolute knowledge,
the movement of abstract thought no longer directed outwards but proceeding
now only within its own self: that is to say, the dialectic of pure thought
is the result.
on p. XXII--Marx.
We have already
seen how the political economist establishes the unity of labour and capital
in a variety of ways:
(1) Capital is accumulated labour.
(2) The purpose of capital within production--partly, reproduction
of capital with profit, partly, capital as raw material (material of labour),
and partly, as an automatically working instrument (the machine
is capital directly equated with labour)--is productive labour.
(3) The worker is a capital.
(4) Wages belong to costs of capital.
(5) In relation to the worker, labour is the reproduction of his life--capital.
(6) In relation to the capitalist, labour is an aspect of his capital's
(7) the political economist postulates the original unity of capital and
labour as the unity of the capitalist and the worker; this is the original
state of paradise. The way in which these two aspects,