unproductive rentier. According to this theory, agriculture is the business
of the capitalist, who invests his capital in it provided he can expect
the usual profit. The claim of the Physiocratic that landed property,
as the sole productive property, should alone pay state taxes and therefore
should alone approve them and participate in the affairs of state-is transformed
into the opposite position that the tax on the rent of land is the only
tax on unproductive income; and is therefore the only tax not detrimental
to national production. It goes without saying that from this point of
view also the political privilege of landowners no longer follows from
their position as principal tax-payers.
[see link from page III
] Everything which Proudhon conceives as a movement
of labour against capital is only the movement of labour in the determination
of capital, of industrial capital, against capital not consumed
as capital, i.e., not consumed industrially. And this movement is proceeding
along its triumphant road--the road to the victory of industrial capital.
It is clear, therefore, that only when labour is grasped as the
essence of private property, can the economic process as such be analysed
in its real concreteness.
Society, as it appears to the political economist, is civil society--in
which every individual is a totality of needs and only
On the next 4 pages, Marx does not use columns and the text flows across
the entire landscape page, these pages are not numbered with roman numerals.
However, the sequence of numbering resumes after these pages with XXXV.
For clarity, I have numbered these pages as 35a,
36a, 37a, and 38a.
These four pages contain Marx's excerpts from the chapter on 'absolute
knowledge' from Hegel's Phenomenology, in which there is a refutation
of Kant and the positivist scientific method. Ed/GT.]
An entity which is defective not merely for me or in my eyes but in itself,
intrinsically, has something outside itself which it lacks. That is, its
essence is different from it itself. Nature has therefore to supersede
itself for the abstract thinker, for it is already posited by him as a
potentially superseded being.
"For us, mind has nature for its premise, being
nature's truth and for that reason its absolute prius. In
this truth nature has vanished, and mind has resulted as the idea
arrived at being-for-itself, the object of which, as well as the
subject, is the concept. This identity is absolute negativity,
for whereas in nature the concept has its perfect external objectivity,
this its alienation has been suspended, and in this alienation the concept
has become identical with itself. But it is this identity, therefore,
only in being a return out of nature." P.392 [§ 391].
"As the abstract idea, revelation is unmediated transition
to, the coming-to-be of nature; as the revelation of the mind,
which is free, it is the positing of nature as the mind's world--a
positing which, being reflection, is at the same time a presupposing
of the world as independently existing nature. Revelation in conception
is the creation of nature as the mind's being in which the mind procures
the affirmation and the truth of its freedom. The absolute
is mind. This is the highest definition of the absolute."
~. 393, § 384.][see p.XLI.
for the possible continuation of the discussion on nature and the affirmation
of human powers: note by Ed/GT]
Moreover, rent of land qua rent of land has been overthrown, since,
contrary to the argument of the Physiocrats which maintains that the landowner
is the only true producer, modern political economy has proved that the
landowner as such is rather the only completely unproductive