XXXVI

[XXXVI.1.]
[see p.I. regarding Adam Smith]
by making use of the swiftness of the greyhound, etc. The effects of these different talents or grades of intelligence, for want of the power or disposition to barter and exchange, cannot be brought into a common stock, and do not in the least contribute to the better accommodation and conveniency of the species. Each animal is still obliged to support and defend itself, separately and independently, and derives no sort of advantage from that variety of talents with which nature has distinguished its fellows. Among men, on the contrary,the most dissimilar genuses are of use to one another; the different produces of their respective talents, by the general disposition to truck, barter, and exchange, being brought, as it were, into a common stock, where every man may purchase whatever part of the produce of other men's industry he has occasion for. [...]"

"As it is the power of exchanging that gives occasion to the division of labour, so the extent of this division must always be limited by the extent of that power, or, in other words, by the extent of the market. When the market is very small, no person can have any encouragement to dedicate himself entirely to one employment, for want of the power to exchange all that surplus part of the produce of his own labour, which is over and above his own consumption, for such parts of the produce of other men's labour as he has occasion for...."

In an advanced state of society

"every man thus lives by exchanging and becomes in some measure a merchant, and the society itself grows to be what is properly a commercial society". (See Destutt de Tracy) [Elemens d'ideologie, Paris, 1826, pp. 68 and 78]: "Society is a series of reciprocal exchanges; commerce contains the whole essence of society." ... The accumulation of capitals mounts with the division of labour, and vice versa."

So much for Adam Smith.

"If every family produced all that it consumed, society could keep going although no exchange of any sort took
[XXXVII.1.]

[XXXVI.2.]
place; without being fundamental, exchange is indispensable in our advanced state of society. The division of labour is a skilful deployment of man's powers; it increases society's production--its power and its pleasures but it curtails, reduces the ability of every person taken individually. Production cannot take place without exchange."

Thus J. B. Say.

"The powers inherent in man are his intelligence and his physical capacity for work. Those which arise from the condition of society consist of the capacity to divide up labour and to distribute different jobs amongst different people ... and the power to exchange mutual services and the products which constitute these means. The motive which impels a man to give his services to another is self-interest--he requires a reward for the services rendered. The right of exclusive private property is indispensable to the establishment of exchange amongst men. "Exchange and division of labour reciprocally condition each other."

Thus Skarbek.

Mill
presents developed exchange - trade - as a consequence of the division of labour.


"The agency of man can be traced to very simple elements. He can, in fact, do nothing more than produce motion. He can move things towards one another, and he can separate them from one another:
[XXXVII.2.]



Send comments to: Lemmaesthetics@freeuk.com, The Hypertext Manuscripts of Karl Marx, Paris 1844, Copyright Gary Tedman 2001-3